Making Maps Easy to Read

These web pages summarise a research project that set out to discover some of the factors that make maps easy to read and to use. This research on cartographic communication is divided into six sections -

Relief: Depicting a Surface on a Map
Map Typography
Eye Movements & Maps
Other Map Symbols


This project was conducted in the 1970s and 1980s by Richard Phillips, Elizabeth Noyes and others at University College London, at the Royal College of Art and at the University of Nottingham. It was funded by the former UK Social Science Research Council.

The publications described here should be easy to obtain through libraries but if you have difficulties please contact Richard Phillips who would also be happy to receive comments and corrections.

Here is a full list of publications from the project in date order (also available as a Refer file).

Updated 22 October 2007.